Motivation is an inferred process within an individual that causes that individual to move towards the goal. It is the power or energy that drives to accomplishment of goals. The two mail elements of motivation are DESIRE and AMBITION.
Motivation can be divided into two types: internal, or intrinsic motivation, and external, or extrinsic motivation.
1.2.1.A. Intrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on any external pressure. Intrinsic motivation is based on taking pleasure in an activity rather than working towards an external reward. Intrinsic motivation has been studied since the early 1970s. Students who are intrinsically motivated are more likely to engage in the task willingly as well as work to improve their skills, which will increase their capabilities. Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they:
- Attribute their educational results to factors under their own control, also known as autonomy,
- Believe they have the skill that will allow them to be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are not determined by luck),
- Are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote-learning to achieve good grades.
1.2.1.B. Extrinsic motivation
Extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain an outcome, which then contradicts intrinsic motivation. It is widely believed that motivation performs two functions. The first is often referred as to the energetic activation component of the motivation construct. The second is directed at a specific behavior and makes reference to the orientation directional component. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards like money and grades, and threat of punishment. Competition is in general extrinsic because it encourages the performer to win and beat others, not simply to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. A crowd cheering on the individual and trophies are also extrinsic incentives. The concept of motivation can be instilled in children at a very young age, by promoting and evoking interest in a certain book or novel. The idea is to have a discussion pertaining the book with young individuals, as well as to reward them.
1.2.2. PRACTICAL TOOLS AND STRATEGIES
Are you able to get excited about every task you need to do? Or do you sometimes need a bit more help to make a start, never mind getting the task done?
Maybe you're continuing to ignore those overflowing filing cabinets, instead of taking some time out to reorganize them. Or, you're avoiding that difficult conversation with a person who is always late, choosing instead to tolerate the tardiness. Perhaps you keep rearranging your priorities, so that the tasks you hate always end up at the bottom of the list. The longer you delay doing something, the more stress and pressure you're likely to feel. After a while, you may even start to lose confidence in your ability to complete the task at all. Many of us sometimes need help getting motivated. And it can be very frustrating when we know we have to do something, but we just can't get around to making a start.
1.2.3. INTERNAL SYSTEMS
Extraversion and Introversion are one of the preferences used in the Jungian Type Inventory. The naming is unfortunately a bit archaic as extraversion is not about being loud and introversion is not about being shy. It is about where people get their energy and motivation from: other people or within themselves.
The energy of extraverts is outward, towards people and things. They need a lot of stimulation and often express emotions. They get their motivation from other people.
Their often want to change the world (rather than think about it). Extraverts like variety, action and achievement. They do well at school but may find University more difficult.
Their attitude is often relaxed and confident. They are understandable and accessible. They tend to act first and think later.
At work, they seeks variety and action and like working with other people. They prefer work that has breadth rather than depth.
Introverts may see them as being shallow and pushy.
The energy of introverts is inward toward concepts and ideas. They need little external stimulation - and in fact they can easily be over-stimulated. it is possible that they focus more on their inner worlds because they suffer from sensory overload if they spend too much time outside and focusing on other people. They thus bottle up their own emotions, which can explode if pushed too far.
Rather than trying to change the world, they just want to understand it. They think deeply about things and often do better at University than they did at school.
Their attitude is reserved and questioning and they can seem subtle and impenetrable. They tend to think before they act.
At work they like to work alone and often seek quiet for concentration. They tend to prefer work that has depth rather than breadth.
Extraverts may see them as egocentric and passive.
There is a view that introverts may act as they do because they are more easily overwhelmed by external stimuli, as opposed to extraverts who have a higher basic stimulation threshold and need the more visceral external stimulation to avoid boredom.
- Show energy and enthusiasm.
- Respond quickly without long pauses to think.
- Allow talking out loud without definite conclusions.
- Communicate openly - do not censure.
- Focus on the external world, the people and the things.
- Allow time for bouncing around ideas.
- Take words at face value.
- Do not assume commitment or decisions made.
- Include introduction time to get to know you and trust you.
- Encourage responses with questions as, “What do you think?”
- Use polling techniques for input and decision making.
- Allow time for thinking before responding and decision-making.
- Make use of written responses where practical.
- Concentrate on one-on-one activities.
- Do not assume lack of interest.
1.2.4. A Bit of Perfume – Motivation - Giving praise
"To see things in the seed, that is genius", said Lao-tzu, Chinese philosopher. This is what we now refer to as Appreciative Intelligence, a term coined by Tojo Thatchenkery to describe the capacity by certain individuals to see the positive inherent potential of situations or people – it is the ability to see a breakthrough product, top talent, or valuable solution of the future that is not readily visible in the present situation. In short, it is the ability to see the mighty oak in the acorn.
The term originated when the author began studying the explosive entrepreneurial growth in Silicon Valley in the late 1990s. According to the author, it is appreciative intelligence that allowed, partly, for so many highly talented immigrants from different countries to assemble in the area and flourish. As the author puts it, venture capitalists looking to fund the right ideas were asking the question, "How can I make this work?" as opposed to "What are the chances this idea will fail?" They created an environment of high anticipation of positive results which became a contagious fever of opportunity, achievement, resilience and possibility recognition. (Appreciative intelligence is not to be confused with appreciative inquiry, which is an approach and methodology for analyzing organizations).
Appreciative intelligence is a mental ability of individuals who have a knack for reframing situations (the glass half full/half empty) and a keen eye for spotting what's valuable and positive in a situation or in people. And these individuals go one step further: they are able to envision how the positive aspects can be used to create a better future. Combining the two in an organization, i.e. a leader with appreciative intelligence using an appreciative inquiry approach, constitutes a powerful force indeed for effecting positive change and inspiring others to give the very best they have to offer. Imagine if all leaders in an organization proactively and mindfully practiced appreciative intelligence. Imagine the profound, healthy impact that this would have on an organization's culture.
Such a culture would fuel employees' motivation. Surveys of what employees want consistently rank "appreciation for work well done" high up on the motivation index – well above "good wages". Ironically, managers often place good wages above appreciation in their responses of what employees want. Other surveys show that one of the reasons employees leave companies is because of lack of praise and recognition. Leaders often talk of the challenge of building trust in their organization. Adele B. Lynn's study on trust in the workplace shows that 54% of those polled would work for less remuneration if the following trust building factors were present:
- Importance: giving people a sense of importance about who they are and about their role in the organization;
- Touch: feeling that the leader genuinely cares about them, feeling a connection with the leader;
- Gratitude: being appreciated for their contributions and sacrifices; receiving genuine gratitude;
- Fairness: knowing that leaders ensure equal and fair distribution of rewards.
Recognition and praise are indeed high octane fuel for the soul. When we receive a genuine compliment, we experience an inner glow – it's a warm, magical feeling that makes us break into a smile. It makes us want to go the extra mile for the person who bestowed the sincere compliment. If this were not important to us, we would not be treasuring all of the mementos of awards, plaques, appreciative notes and emails, and other tokens of appreciation that we receive over the years.
But intuitively, we all know that genuine appreciation is a key factor in our relationship with our constituents, and any basic management course will touch on the value of praising employees for their contributions. Yet many well-meaning and otherwise caring leaders are reluctant to express their appreciation of others' talents and contributions.
Many years ago, I worked for a great leader, one who genuinely cared for his constituents, and who confided in me one day that he found expressing praise a very difficult thing to do – publicly and even harder, privately. I asked him why that is. He said, "I grew up in a household where praising was not something we did." There is a profound implication in this statement. Our families are our first corporations – that's where we learned many of our behaviors, and it is often difficult to break these ingrained patterns. Withholding praise, however, is a pattern of behavior that we need to unlearn if we want to bring the best out in people. We need to get over the embarrassment that grips some of us when we have to praise an individual.
Here are some pointers for practicing this important skill:
- If you have difficulty praising others, analyze the root causes of this. If it is a fear of embarrassing others, know that even the most introverted individuals who shun public praise enjoy reading an email to all staff about their contributions. If it is a discomfort at not knowing how to do it, read the few simple rules below and consider working with a coach for one or two sessions on this most important aspect of a leader's communication repertoire. Self-awareness precedes self-management.
- Sometimes, withholding praise is simply due to a lack of time for leaders who are required to handle an ever increasing number of issues during the course of a harried day. If this is your challenge, I encourage you to reframe how you view this particular issue. Showing your people you care about them needs to move up on the list of items in your "to do" list. It takes less than 10 seconds to say, "I appreciate the time and thought you put into this report. It is exceptional. Thank you."
- Praise has a limited "best before" date. Don't delay its expression or wait until performance review time – when you see something that is worthy of praising, do so promptly after the event.
- Make your genuine words memorable for your constituents by being specific about the achievement. Not many of us remember the perfunctory "job well done", but we all would remember someone who tells us "This was pure genius," or "I would have missed this if you hadn't picked it up." The praise does not have to be elaborate. It just needs to be genuine.
- When you drop by an employee's office or cubicle to deliver the praise, don't follow that with a conversation about business matters or other projects. Deliver the praise and leave. Come back later for discussions on other matters. This gives the praise its moment of honor and heightens its value in the eyes of the recipient.
- A primer for rewarding and recognizing others is Jim Kouzes' and Barry Posner's Encouraging the Heart: A Leader's Guide to Rewarding and Recognizing Others. The book provides 150 ways to encourage the heart. Another useful book is Steven Kerr's Ultimate Rewards: What Really Motivates People to Achieve (Harvard Business Review Book Series). The book outlines many different sources of motivation including accountability, responsibility, organizational culture, coaching, teamwork, incentives and goal setting.
- Finally, how can you apply the dynamic concept of appreciative intelligence on yourself? What are your talents? Practicing appreciating our talents and gifts opens us up to appreciating others' greatness.
Perhaps the ultimate appreciation is letting people know that their work – no matter how far removed they are from the top of the pyramid – is important to the organization. It's about making everyone feel like an owner and helping them understand how their work contributes to the overall purpose of the company. It's about practicing seeing more people. Excellence involves everyone.
There is another lovely Chinese quote that says, "A bit of perfume always clings to the hand that gives roses." As leaders, when we make people feel great about themselves, paradoxically we elevate ourselves to greatness as well.
1.2.5. Motivation in Leadership
The assessment of EI in leadership is complex. The use of simple self-report questionnaires to explore self-awareness has significant limitations. Team Focus approach the topic using a sophisticated variety of approaches including 360 feedback and experiential exercises. This brings the whole concept alive and allows individuals to go beyond their existing knowledge and comfort zones thus producing real impact, growth and change.
The first and most basic prerequisite for leadership is the desire to lead. After all, becoming an effective leader takes hard work. If you're not prepared to work hard at developing your leadership skills or if, deep down, you're really not sure whether you want to lead or not, you'll struggle to become an effective leader.
If you have found that you're strongly motivated to lead, and you're already a leader - great! And if you're not already a leader, this is definitely an area you should investigate as you plan your career development.
On the other hand, if your score indicates that you don't have a strong motivation to lead, and you're considering moving into this area, you may want to look at other career options before you make a decision. Our article on Finding Career Direction will help you work through a process to find out what type of work does motivate you.
But if you're already a leader and you're just going through a low patch in the role, try out leadership motivation tools and regain the enthusiasm for the job that took you into leadership in the first place!
1.3. GOAL SETTING
Goal is an intended outcome that requires action that satisfies needs. Goal means in generic terms -
- Critical Success Factor (CSF)
We form goals by a process of questions and internal rumination. Constantly scanning and brooming on that one try and understand how it works. From this, then forecast the future and consequently decide what is possible as a goal for anyone.
From all the possible things that we could try to achieve, some will be good for us as they satisfy our needs in some way. Those things that strongly satisfy needs will evoke feelings of desire.
What can be achieved?
When we have decided that something is possible and desirable, we also have to figure out whether it is at all possible for us to achieve. This decision is based around our self-image and self-understanding, which is often based on what others tell us and even on how we think how others perceive us.
What is allowed?
We test the final goals against our values and other systems such as cultural rules to determine whether what we are proposing to set as goals is actually allowed.
Purusharthas is Kaama, Artha, Dharma, Moksha. All human have desire (kaama). The ways of satisfying the kama is artha (wealth). The artha can be obtained by rightful means (dharma) or wrong ways (adharmic). The enjoyment of attaining the desired objective is the moksha (happiness). It is the practical way of looking at moksha. Thus it is not what is to be obtained after death. It is in this life itself.
The janmam (creativity of brahma) that is like the morning wakeup. Living is the practical day (Vishnu who maintains us). Night sleep is joining to death (being with Siva). The a day and night is one janma. Next day again at brahma muhurtha, one takes the birth (gets created).
Actions of the day and the thoughts thereon on the next day will haunt the individual. Papa (day’s bad actions) will create bad thoughts in the next day. If we can live the day happy and that happiness is not haunting in the next future that gives the constant / continued happiness. That is what is MOKSHA.
MOKSHA gives happiness in life, all the moments. Thus it is important to be happy in all the actions and consistent in being so. That is the success of any individual.
1.3.C. GOAL SETTING
Goal Setting it is the process of deciding on something you want, planning how to get it and then working towards the objective.
Blue print of goal setting:
DESIRE: The urge to achieve the goal
WRITE: List down the goals and prioritize
IDENTIFY: Identifying the obstacles and the ways to overcome the obstacles
DEAD LINE: Have to have a deadline to complete the goal
PLAN: Make a plan
MENTAL PICTURE: Have a mental picture of the goal
PERSISTANCE: Never give up
Achieving our goals is one of the key ways we have of of feeling good. It is, in effect, the brain's way of rewarding us for meeting its needs.
We also feel good when we anticipate that we will meet our goals. In effect, what we do is go out into the future and place ourselves in a position where we have reached the goal. We thus 'steal' a bit of good feelings from the future. Anticipation is generally a good thing, as it can motivate us along the path toward the goal. The only time that it is not so good is when are so good at imagining the future that we mix up the present and the future and 'use up' all of the good feelings of achievement. When we then think about the future, we do not have many good feelings (in fact we may feel that we have 'as good as' achieved the goal anyway) and hence we give up.
A goal should always be a SMART goal. SMART expanded as below -
Specific: should be able to define the goal
Measurable: should be able to gauge the goal
Accountable: should be accountable for choice made
Realistic/ Relevant: should be something that you can achieve
Timeline: should be able to complete the goal in a stipulated time.
Set yourself goals that are achievable, and beware of falling into the trap of lowering your sights because you do not believe in your own capabilities.
Help others set goals which gets them to where they can be. Your view of their capabilities as presented to them will heavily influence their decisions as to whether they can achieve things. To get them to act differently from their longer-term goals, apply short-term pressure.
1.3.D. Goal Setting – Personal
Planning to Live Your Life Your Way
Many people feel as if they're adrift in the world. They work hard, but they don't seem to get anywhere worthwhile. A key reason that they feel this way is that they haven't spent enough time thinking about what they want from life, and haven't set themselves formal goals. After all, would you set out on a major journey with no real idea of your destination? Probably not!
Goal setting is a powerful process for thinking about your ideal future, and for motivating yourself to turn your vision of this future into reality.
The process of setting goals helps you choose where you want to go in life. By knowing precisely what you want to achieve, you know where you have to concentrate your efforts. You'll also quickly spot the distractions that can, so easily, lead you astray.
1.3.D.1. Why Set Goals?
Goal setting is used by top-level athletes, successful business-people and achievers in all fields. Setting goals gives you long-term vision and short-term motivation. It focuses your acquisition of knowledge, and helps you to organize your time and your resources so that you can make the very most of your life.
By setting sharp, clearly defined goals, you can measure and take pride in the achievement of those goals, and you'll see forward progress in what might previously have seemed a long pointless grind. You will also raise your self-confidence, as you recognize your own ability and competence in achieving the goals that you've set.
1.3.D.2. Starting to Set Personal Goals
You set your goals on a number of levels:
- First you create your "big picture" of what you want to do with your life (or over, say, the next 10 years), and identify the large-scale goals that you want to achieve.
- Then, you break these down into the smaller and smaller targets that you must hit to reach your lifetime goals.
- Finally, once you have your plan, you start working on it to achieve these goals.
This is why we start the process of goal setting by looking at your lifetime goals. Then, we work down to the things that you can do in, say, the next five years, then next year, next month, next week, and today, to start moving towards them.
1.3.D.3. Timescales of Goals
We are often driven in the short-term by things which are urgent to us, rather than those things which are truly important and which align with our longer-term goals. Short-term goals are often to relieve short-term pressure. It is very possible to be constantly driven by these goals, which can turn out to be very unsatisfying in the longer term.
We also take on goals that guide our longer-term intent and actions. These often have medium-term and intermediate goals to satisfy us that we are on the right road and going somewhere.
Some of us also sit back and ask what we want to achieve with our lives. A good way of thinking about this is to sit down and write your own obituary as you would really like it to be.
The first step in setting personal goals is to consider what you want to achieve in your lifetime (or at least, by a significant and distant age in the future). Setting lifetime goals gives you the overall perspective that shapes all other aspects of your decision making.
To give a broad, balanced coverage of all important areas in your life, try to set goals in some of the following categories (or in other categories of your own, where these are important to you):
- Career - What level do you want to reach in your career, or what do you want to achieve?
- Financial - How much do you want to earn, by what stage? How is this related to your career goals?
- Education - Is there any knowledge you want to acquire in particular? What information and skills will you need to have in order to achieve other goals?
- Family - Do you want to be a parent? If so, how are you going to be a good parent? How do you want to be seen by a partner or by members of your extended family?
- Artistic - Do you want to achieve any artistic goals?
- Attitude - Is any part of your mindset holding you back? Is there any part of the way that you behave that upsets you? (If so, set a goal to improve your behavior or find a solution to the problem.)
- Physical - Are there any athletic goals that you want to achieve, or do you want good health deep into old age? What steps are you going to take to achieve this?
- Pleasure - How do you want to enjoy yourself? (You should ensure that some of your life is for you!)
- Public Service - Do you want to make the world a better place? If so, how?
Spend some time brainstorming these things, and then select one or more goals in each category that best reflect what you want to do. Then consider trimming again so that you have a small number of really significant goals that you can focus on.
As you do this, make sure that the goals that you have set are ones that you genuinely want to achieve, not ones that your parents, family, or employers might want. (If you have a partner, you probably want to consider what he or she wants - however, make sure that you also remain true to yourself!)
1.3.E. Goal Setting Theory of Motivation
In 1960’s, Edwin Locke put forward the Goal-setting theory of motivation. This theory states that goal setting is essentially linked to task performance. It states that specific and challenging goals along with appropriate feedback contribute to higher and better task performance. In simple words, goals indicate and give direction to an employee about what needs to be done and how much efforts are required to be put in. The important features of goal-setting theory are as follows:
The willingness to work towards attainment of goal is main source of job motivation. Clear, particular and difficult goals are greater motivating factors than easy, general and vague goals.
Specific and clear goals lead to greater output and better performance. Unambiguous, measurable and clear goals accompanied by a deadline for completion avoids misunderstanding.
Goals should be realistic and challenging. This gives an individual a feeling of pride and triumph when he attains them, and sets him up for attainment of next goal. The more challenging the goal, the greater is the reward generally and the more is the passion for achieving it.
Better and appropriate feedback of results directs the employee behaviour and contributes to higher performance than absence of feedback. Feedback is a means of gaining reputation, making clarifications and regulating goal difficulties. It helps employees to work with more involvement and leads to greater job satisfaction.
Employees’ participation in goal is not always desirable.
Participation of setting goal, however, makes goal more acceptable and leads to more involvement.
Goal setting theory has certain eventualities such as:
a. Self-efficiency- Self-efficiency is the individual’s self-confidence and faith that he has potential of performing the task. Higher the level of self-efficiency, greater will be the efforts put in by the individual when they face challenging tasks. While, lower the level of self-efficiency, less will be the efforts put in by the individual or he might even quit while meeting challenges.
b. Goal commitment- Goal setting theory assumes that the individual is committed to the goal and will not leave the goal. The goal commitment is dependent on the following factors:
i. Goals are made open, known and broadcasted.
ii. Goals should be set-self by individual rather than designated.
iii. Individual’s set goals should be consistent with the organizational goals and vision.
Advantages of Goal Setting Theory
- Goal setting theory is a technique used to raise incentives for employees to complete work quickly and effectively.
- Goal setting leads to better performance by increasing motivation and efforts, but also through increasing and improving the feedback quality.
Limitations of Goal Setting Theory
- At times, the organizational goals are in conflict with the managerial goals. Goal conflict has a detrimental effect on the performance if it motivates incompatible action drift.
- Very difficult and complex goals stimulate riskier behaviour.
- If the employee lacks skills and competencies to perform actions essential for goal, then the goal-setting can fail and lead to undermining of performance.
- There is no evidence to prove that goal-setting improves job satisfaction.